Background: The distributions of socioeconomic status (SES) factors have been changing in Japan. We examined the relationships among SES and self-rated health (SRH) in Japanese adults. Methods: We analyzed 1,178 men and 1,555 women. We showed the distribution of SRH by sex and age and examined cross-sectional relationships among educational attainment, marital=living statuses, working status, household income and expenditure, and fine SRH (defined as excellent, very good, or good). We adjusted for age, subjective symptoms, visiting doctors, monthly equivalent household expenditure (EHE), and living in their own house. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of fine SRH was 79% and 73% among men and women, respectively. Among men, graduating from high school (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.19, relative to graduating from elementary or junior high school) and university or junior college (aOR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.62) was associated with fine SRH. Among women, graduating from university or junior college was associated with fine SRH (aOR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12–2.46). Neither marital=living status nor working status was associated with SRH after adjustments for age in either sex. Among women, high EHE and income were associated with fine SRH (the highest expenditure group: aOR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.22–2.65; the highest income group: aOR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.34–3.46, relative to the corresponding lowest group). These simple relationships were not observed for men. Conclusions: High educational attainment was associated with fine SRH. Relationships among household income, EHE, and fine SRH differed by sex.
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