Remote control of neural function by X-ray-induced scintillation

Takanori Matsubara, Takayuki Yanagida, Noriaki Kawaguchi, Takashi Nakano, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Maiko Sezaki, Hitoshi Takizawa, Satoshi P. Tsunoda, Shin ichiro Horigane, Shuhei Ueda, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Hideki Kandori, Akihiro Yamanaka, Takayuki Yamashita

研究成果: Article査読

7 被引用数 (Scopus)


Scintillators emit visible luminescence when irradiated with X-rays. Given the unlimited tissue penetration of X-rays, the employment of scintillators could enable remote optogenetic control of neural functions at any depth of the brain. Here we show that a yellow-emitting inorganic scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG), can effectively activate red-shifted excitatory and inhibitory opsins, ChRmine and GtACR1, respectively. Using injectable Ce:GAGG microparticles, we successfully activated and inhibited midbrain dopamine neurons in freely moving mice by X-ray irradiation, producing bidirectional modulation of place preference behavior. Ce:GAGG microparticles are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible, allowing for chronic implantation. Pulsed X-ray irradiation at a clinical dose level is sufficient to elicit behavioral changes without reducing the number of radiosensitive cells in the brain and bone marrow. Thus, scintillator-mediated optogenetics enables minimally invasive, wireless control of cellular functions at any tissue depth in living animals, expanding X-ray applications to functional studies of biology and medicine.

ジャーナルNature communications
出版ステータスPublished - 12-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • 化学 (全般)
  • 生化学、遺伝学、分子生物学(全般)
  • 物理学および天文学(全般)


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