Neurons possess a polarized morphology. In general, each neuron has several dendrites but only one axon. Such morphology is the basis for directionalized rapid signaling, information flowing from the short dendrites to the long axon. The mechanisms involved in the establishment of the neuronal polarity remain largely unknown. However, recently, members of Rho family proteins have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal morphology especially development of neuronal polarity, axon outgrowth and guidance, dendritic tree elaboration and synapse formation. Moreover, the Rho GTPases have been reported to be directly or indirectly involved in some neurological conditions such as X-linked mental retardation as well as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. These findings demonstrate the importance of Rho GTPases in the development, maintenance and function of the nervous system.
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