Background Data regarding multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections among cancer patients are limited. Methods We conducted a case-control study to investigate the risk factors for acquisition of MDR A baumannii and the outcomes among cancer patients. Cases were inpatients with malignancy who had MDR A baumannii from any cultures between 2008 and 2011. Controls were inpatients with malignancy but no MDR A baumannii. Results A total of 31 case patients were matched with 62 control patients. Hematologic malignancy (P =.036), need for dialysis (P =.01), admission for other reasons except elective surgery (P =.03), transfer from other health care facilities (P =.02), prolonged intensive care unit stay (P =.004), mechanical ventilation (P <.001), pressor use (P =.001), tube feeding (P <.001), transfusion (P =.009), and prior antimicrobial use (P <.001) were identified as significant risk factors in univariate analysis. Need for dialysis (odds ratio [OR], 18.23; P =.04) and prolonged intensive care unit stay (OR, 19.28; P =.01) remained significant in multivariate analysis. Lengths of stay were 28 days for the case patients and 10 days for the control patients (P =.001). The 90-day mortality rates were 41.9% and 29.0%, respectively (P =.20). Conclusions Acquisition of MDR A baumannii among cancer patients appears to be associated with general nosocomial infection risk factors rather than underlying malignancies.
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