Rotavirus, a member of the family Reoviridae, was identified as the leading etiological agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children in 1973. The rotavirus genome is composed of 11 gene segments of double-stranded (ds)RNA. During the last 40 years, a large amount of basic research on rotavirus structure, genome, antigen, replication, pathogenesis, epidemiology, immune responses, and evolution has been accumulated. This article reviews the fundamental aspects of rotavirology including recent important achievements in research.
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