Purpose: To prospectively determine if semiquantitative assessment of R2* images and T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of leiomyomas correlates with the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment for volume reduction. Materials and Methods: Internal review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Twenty women (mean age, 36.3 years) with intramyometrial leiomyomas were enrolled in this study. Single-section double-echo dynamic MR imaging was performed before GnRH agonist administration. T2-weighted images were obtained before and after two or three GnRH agonist injections (1.88 mg leuprorelin acetate). The steepest signal intensity (SI) upslope on T1-weighted images and the area under the curve (AUC) on R2* images were determined by using a 16 x 16-voxel matrix that was placed in the center of a leiomyoma. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to compare the percentage of volume reduction with SI upslope and AUC. Unpaired t test was performed to evaluate the difference between leiomyomas with AUC and SI upslope values that were less than or greater than the mean. Results: Percentage of volume reduction ranged from 6.2% to 51.1%. The mean AUC and mean SI upslope were 39.2 and 9.83% per second, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the AUC and the percentage of volume reduction (r = 0.81, P < .001), although no significant correlation was observed between the SI upslope and the percentage of volume reduction. A significant difference in percentage of volume reduction was observed in leiomyomas by using mean AUC as a cutoff value (P = .003). Conclusion: AUC on R2* images correlates with the efficacy of GnRH agonist before initiation of treatment for volume reduction of leiomyoma.
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