Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that most commonly causes acquired cardiac disease in children in developed countries. The most highly recommended treatment for KD is 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There are two types of IVIG, sodium-containing (high-Na) and sodium-trace (low-Na) preparations. However, few studies have compared the effects of these two preparations for superiority. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between high and low-Na IVIG preparations in KD children using a national inpatient database in Japan. We used the Diagnostic Procedure Combination database to identify KD patients treated with IVIG between 2010 and 2017. We identified those receiving high and low-Na preparations of IVIG as an initial treatment. Outcomes included proportion of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA), IVIG resistance, adverse effects, length of stay, and medical cost. Propensity score–matched analyses were conducted to compare the outcomes between the two groups. Instrumental variable analyses were performed to confirm the results. We identified 42,345 patients with KD. There were significant differences in proportions of CAA (2.8% vs. 3.2%; p = 0.031) and IVIG resistance (17% vs. 18%, p = 0.001) between the two groups. However, there were no significant differences in length of stay or medical cost. The instrumental variable analysis confirmed the same results as the propensity score analysis. Conclusion: The present study suggests that high-Na IVIG is potentially effective for reducing the proportion of CAA in KD patients. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the effectiveness observed in this study.What is Known: • For treatments of Kawasaki Disease in acute phase, intravenous immunoglobulin have been the most recommended to reduce fever early and prevent complications of coronary artery abnormalities. There are two types of IVIG preparations, sodium-containing IVIG and sodium-trace IVIG. However, few studies have performed comparisons to determine which preparation of IVIG is superior.What is New: • The present findings suggest that high-Na IVIG is associated with reductions in the proportions of CAAs and IVIG resistance in KD patients.
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