Background/Aim: We aimed to compare the outcomes between sorafenib and lenvatinib as first-line therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (Vp3/4). Patients and Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 41 HCC patients with Vp3/4 and Child-Pugh A. Results: The outcomes in the lenvatinib group (n=13) were significantly better than those in the sorafenib group (n=28) [best objective response rate according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors: 53.8% vs. 14.3%; p=0.0193, best disease control rate: 92.3% vs. 35.7%; p=0.0008, median overall survival (OS): not reached vs. 187 days; p=0.0040, respectively]. Lenvatinib treatment was the only significant predictor of better OS and time to tumor progression. No patient needed to discontinue lenvatinib treatment due to drug-related adverse events. Conclusion: Compared with sorafenib, lenvatinib treatment for advanced HCC with Vp3/4 may lead to more favorable outcomes.
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