Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare condition caused by various underlying diseases including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and neoplasms. Obtaining an accurate definitive diagnosis of the underlying cause of CDI is difficult. Recently, anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies were demonstrated to be a highly sensitive and specific marker of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH). Here, we report a detailed case series, and evaluated the significance of anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies in differentiating the etiologies of CDI. A prospective analysis was conducted in 15 consecutive patients with CDI from 2013 to 2020 at a single referral center. Anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies were measured and the relationship between antibody positivity and the clinical/histopathological diagnoses was evaluated. Among 15 CDI patients, the positive anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies were found in 4 of 5 LINH cases, 3 of 4 lymphocytic panhypophysitis (LPH) cases, one of 2 sarcoidosis cases, and one intracranial germinoma case, respectively. Two Rathke cleft cyst cases and one craniopharyngioma case were negative. This is the first report of anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies positivity in CDI patients with biopsy-proven LPH. Measurement of anti-rabphilin-3A antibodies may be valuable for differentiating CDI etiologies.
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