Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage with that of medical treatment, based on data from the Japan Stroke Registry Study. Methods: From 1999 to 2001, 1010 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were registered in the Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study from 45 stroke center hospitals in Japan. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Japan Stroke Scale (JSS), and modified Rankin Scale scores were used to compare severity and improvement in patients given surgical and medical treatment. Conclusions: Surgically treated patients, especially those with cerebellar hemorrhage, had significantly greater improvement in NIHSS or JSS score compared with medically treated patients. Our findings indicated that the patients who underwent surgery appeared to have better outcomes. But, because the study was not randomized, this observation cannot be interpreted as indicating that surgery is advantageous.
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