BACKROUND: Not all patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) benefit from treatment with molecular targeted agents such as sorafenib. We investigated whether New-FP (fine-powder cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil), a hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy regimen, is more favorable than sorafenib as an initial treatment for locally progressed HCC. METHODS: To avoid selection bias, we corrected the data from different facilities that did or did not perform New-FP therapy. In total, 1709 consecutive patients with HCC initially treated with New-FP or sorafenib; 1624 (New-FP, n = 644; sorafenib n = 980) were assessed. After propensity score matching (PSM), overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were assessed (n = 344 each). Additionally, the patients were categorized into four groups: cohort-1 [(without macrovascular invasion (MVI) and extrahepatic spread (EHS)], cohort-2 (with MVI), cohort-3 (with EHS), and cohort-4 (with MVI and EHS) to clarify the efficacy of each treatment. RESULTS: New-FP prolonged OS than sorafenib after PSM (New-FP, 12 months; sorafenib, 7.9 months; p < 0.001). Sorafenib treatment, and severe MVI and EHS were poor prognostic factors. In the subgroup analyses, the OS was significantly longer the New-FP group in cohort-2. CONCLUSIONS: Local treatment using New-FP is a potentially superior initial treatment compared with sorafenib as a multidisciplinary treatment in locally progressed HCC without EHS.
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