Objective. Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a histological type that was first proposed in 1999. This tumor is rare and accounts for approximately 1.6-2.6% of all cases of lung cancer; thus, to date, few studies have described the clinical course of surgical cases. Methods. The characteristics, treatments, histological parameters, and outcomes of 13 patients with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung who underwent pulmonary resection at Tohoku University from 2007 to 2013 were studied. Results. The ages of the patients ranged from 41 to 84 years (mean, 67 years; male, n=9; female, n=4). Lobectomy and partial resection were performed for 11 (bilobectomy, n= 1) and 2 patients, respectively. Seven patients experienced postoperative recurrence within 6 months; 5 of the 7 patients died. Disease-free survival ranged from 38 to 2, 801 days (median, 562 days). One patient with single brain metastasis at the time of the initial diagnosis underwent pulmonary resection and received gamma knife treatment. Relapse was observed at the supraclavicular lymph node and was treated with chemotherapy. A complete response was achieved, and this patient remains alive without evident disease at 1, 816 days. Conclusion. Although pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung has a poor prognosis and the efficacy of chemotherapy in treating it is unclear, our results indicate that a sub-section of the population may show a good prognosis.
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