During Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication, host cell functions, including protein expression and posttranslational modification pathways, are dysregulated by KSHV to promote virus production. Here, we attempted to identify key proteins for KSHV lytic replication by profiling protein expression in the latent and lytic phases using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteomic analysis, immunoblotting, and quantitative PCR demonstrated that antigen F (HLA-F) adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10) and UBE1L2 (also known as ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 6 [UBA6]) were upregulated during lytic replication. FAT10 is a ubiquitin-like protein (UBL). UBE1L2 is the FAT10-activating enzyme (E1), which is essential for FAT10 modification (FAT10ylation). FAT10ylated proteins were immediately expressed after lytic induction and increased over time during lytic replication. Knockout of UBE1L2 suppressed KSHV production but not KSHV DNA synthesis. In order to isolate FAT10ylated proteins during KSHV lytic replication, we conducted immunoprecipitation using anti-FAT10 antibody and nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography of exogenously expressed His-tagged FAT10 from cells undergoing latent or lytic replication. LC-MS/MS was performed to identify FAT10ylated proteins. We identified KSHV ORF59 and ORF61 as FAT10ylation substrates. Our study revealed that the UBE1L2-FAT10 system is upregulated during KSHV lytic replication, and it contributes to viral propagation.
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