Bipolar disorder has known as a high risk factor for substance abuse and dependence such as alcohol and illegal drugs. Recently, Kakiuchi et al. reported that the -116C/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) gene, which translates a transcription factor specific for endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by misfolded proteins, was associated with bipolar disorders and schizophrenia in a Japanese population. Abuse of methamphetamine often produces affective disorders such as manic state, depressive state, and psychosis resembling paranoid-type schizophrenia. To clarify a possible involvement of XBP-1 in the etiology of methamphetamine dependence, we examined the genetic association of the -116C/G polymorphism of the XBP-1 gene by a case-control study. We found no significant association in allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphism either with methamphetamine dependence or any clinical phenotype of dependence. Because the polymorphism is located in the promoter region of the XBP-1 gene and affects transcription activity of the gene, it is unlikely that dysfunction of XBP-1 may induces susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence.
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