Background: In most guidelines, no other interventional therapy but liver transplantation is recommended for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with Child-Pugh C cirrhosis (CP-C). However, in Japan, patients were sometimes treated with expectation of benefit. Summary: A workshop was conducted to explore the state of treatments for CP-C HCC in Japan. After the workshop, a questionnaire on therapies was given to the panelists. Clinical data of 769 patients with CP-C HCC from 8 hospitals as well as analyses of data collected by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (LCSGJ) consisting of 1,344 CP-C HCC cases were presented. Patients who underwent liver transplantation were excluded. In total, 424 out of the 769 patients (55.1%) from the 8 hospitals and 537 out of 828 CP-C HCC cases (64.8%) from the LCSGJ data received interventional therapies, such as local ablation and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. All panelists agreed that there was a subgroup of CP-C patients who benefitted from the locoregional therapies. The major goals for the therapies were to prevent HCC rupture and avoid obstruction of major vessels by tumor growth, which can lead to a sudden deterioration of the patients' condition. Patient liver function and tumor stage are both important factors for the decision to undergo treatment; however, the inclusion criteria for the treatments varied among the centers. Key Message: There exists a subgroup of CP-C patients who benefit from interventions for HCC.
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