Renal biopsy is the gold standard for confirmation of disease severity and diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (GN), but its procedure is invasive with a risk of complications. Thus, a non-invasive monitoring method is desirable especially in pediatric patients. Fractalkine and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are proinflammatory chemokines, and both have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of immunocomplex-mediated GN. Recently, it has been reported that urinary fractalkine and MCP-1 may serve as possible predictors of disease activity of adult patients with GN. We, therefore, examined whether urinary levels of fractalkine and MCP-1 correlate with clinical and histologic parameters. Twenty-six consecutive children with various types of GN were enrolled in this study, including lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, acute GN, and thin basement membrane disease (served as a non-inflammatory control). Urinary fractalkine and MCP-1 concentrations in the first morning urine samples obtained at the time of renal biopsy were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standardized for urinary creatinine concentrations. Urinary fractalkine concentration differed significantly among the disease categories. Urinary concentrations of fractalkine and MCP-1 showed a significant positive correlation with the degree of occult blood in urine and a significant inverse correlation with the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, the urinary MCP-1 concentration was significantly correlated with histological chronicity indices in patients with lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy. Measurement of urinary fractalkine and MCP-1 concentrations may be useful as a non-invasive method for predicting the disease activity of GN in children.
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