OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI, coregistered FDG PET/MRI, integrated FDG PET/CT, and conventional imaging examination including bone scintigraphy, contrast-enhanced brain MRI, and CT for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) staging according to the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) system. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The study subjects were 23 consecutively registered patients with MPM (15 men, eight women; mean age, 68 years for both sexes) who had prospectively undergone whole-body FDG PET/CT, whole-body MRI, conventional radiologic examination, surgical or conventional treatments, pathologic examination, and follow-up conventional imaging examinations between January 2011 and December 2017. TNM staging was evaluated by two independent readers. Kappa statistics and chi-square tests were used for evaluation agreements on each factor and clinical stage between each method and final diagnosis. The diagnostic accuracy of each method was statistically compared by use of McNemar test. RESULTS. The kappa values for each factor between each method and final diagnosis were significant (p < 0.0001) and ranged between 0.33 and 0.91. Kappa values between final diagnosis and stage evaluation were also significant (p < 0.0001) and ranged between 0.57 and 0.91. The diagnostic accuracy of N and stage assessment of whole-body MRI and FDG PET/MRI was significantly higher than that of conventional imaging examination (N factor, p < 0.05; stage, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION. The diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI, FDG PET/MRI, and FDG PET/CT for TNM stage assessment based on the new IASLC MPM staging system is greater than that of conventional imaging examination.
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